Frequently Asked Questions

Which raw materials can be converted into KDV-Diesel?

All organic matter like:

•Biomass (C-3 and C-4 plants), wood, biogenous residues like leaves, straw, etc.
•Waste oil (also contaminated oil), refinery residues, bitumen. etc.
•All kinds of plastics and synthetic materials (PVC, PP, PET, etc.)
•Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)and Industrial Waste.

What is the advantage of the KDV-Technology vs. Ethanol or Biodiesel?

•Maximizes Land Utilization. Produces diesel with 4x Ethanol and 5x Biodiesel net energy yield per acre.
•No Food vs Fuel Trade Off. Can convert into KDV-Diesel a wide variety of feedstocks, including Municipal Solid Waste, agricultural waste (straw, husk, bagasse) and grown energy sources like Jatropha.
•Economical. KDV-Process will enjoy a 42% per BTU cost advantage over Ethanol, and a 51% BTU cost advantage over Biodiesel.
•Immediate Market Acceptance. KDV-Diesel is cost-effective and universally usable, requiring no new infrastructure investment. It is compatible with existing engines, pipelines, and fuel pumps.
•Catalyst not Bugs. Catalysts have been proven to be the most effective way to produce fuels and petrochemicals and have greater success utilizing cellulosic biomass than fermentation methods.
•Carbon Neutral. KDV-Process produces a net gain in energy recaptured.

What is the quality of the produced KDV Diesel?

The produced Diesel (chemical composition) fulfills the European norm DIN E590 for automotive fuels, once the product has been desulphurized ( the amount of Sulphur depends of the type of feedstock), and its main properties are detailed as follows:

-Cetane index of around 59
-Density at 15 °C around ,830
-Viscosity at 40 °C around 3.2
-Flash point (°C) around 57
- Sulphur content (it depends of the feedstock
-Lubricity around of 255

What are the benefits of a fuel with a high Cetane index

The KDV Diesel is expected to have a cetane index of around 58 which is quite a high value.

High cetane fuels are faster burning fuels. The fuel ignites spontaneously as soon as it is injected into the combustion chamber. Provided the fuel is injected smoothly and forms a well-controlled spray pattern, it will burn smoothly leaving little or no unburned fuel remaining by the time the piston reaches top dead centre.

The benefits are a cleaner engine, less engine stress, improved fuel economy and reduced emissions.

What are the benefits of low-sulphur diesel?

The KDV Low sulphur diesel order to reduce particulate emissions. Fine particulates, often referred to as PM10 or PM2.5 are now known to exacerbate respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. This can lead to hospital admissions and even early deaths in a few cases.

Particulates are reduced by reducing the sulphur content of the fuel but the real benefit of 50 ppm (or less) sulphur diesel is that regenerative particulate filters can be fitted to engines without the risk of a reduction in performance over time.

Low sulphur diesel has benefits for engines. Sulphur oxides generated during combustion can react with water vapour to generate sulphurous and sulphuric acids. Modern heavy-duty engine lubricants contain alkalis to neutralise these acid gases but the risk of premature engine wear such as corrosive ring wear is reduced if low sulphur fuel is used.

How does the desulphuration process works?

Sulphur in diesel is mainly in the form of substances called benzo- and dibenzothiophenes.These can be broken down by reacting gas oil refining streams with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst under high temperature and pressure conditions. This process is called hydrodesulphurization.

Reducing sulphur in diesel need not affect the bulk composition of the diesel greatly but three important effects can arise. Some less stable components are removed, the aromatic content (especially poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) of the diesel can be reduced and trace nitrogen and oxygen-containing substances that give diesel good lubricity are also reduced.

The first two of these effects are beneficial. The resulting fuel is more stable to oxidation, and its cetane quality is improved. One downside of lower aromatics is the effect this can have on injector pump seals in direct contact with the fuel.

The last of these effects is detrimental to injector pumps that rely on the fuel to lubricate their moving components.

Is the KDV Technology protected by patents?

Dr. Christian Koch (Alphakat GmbH) is the one and only innovator and owner of the patents. The Technology patents are filed worldwide as follow:

•Patent No. DE10 2005 056 735 from 29.11.2005 (19 patents and patent accretions)

•Patent No. DE10 2006 054 506 from 17.11.2006 (16 patents and patent accretions)

•Patent No. EP1798274A1 (for Europe) and WO2007062811A3 (World Patent)

What are the air emissions produced by the KDV process?

The KDV-process is performed in a special plant called KDV unit. The plant must ensure a safety operation of the KDV-process. The whole plant is a closed system and is operating with temperatures around 300°C and with a light under pressure. The under pressure in the system is maintained with special vacuum pumps. These vacuum pumps suck the in the KDV-process synthesized gases (burnable gas).

These burnable gases will be directed to the air supply duct of the diesel generator. In the diesel generator these gases are recycled in a thermal post combustion. This way of operation ensures that no harmful emissions can pollute the environment.

The only emissions are the emissions of the diesel generator.