Technology



Modules

KDV Modules



Sludge Plant


This is the preparation module. The solid input material is fed into this unit. This module has been designed to convert the solid feedstock into "sludge" before it is taken to the main core of the plant, where the KDV process takes place.


Main Core Module


This is the first module designed by Alphakat. In this unit the "sludge" is heated up with the turbine reactors. The resulting diesel vapors are taken to the main distillation column and then on to the main condensers in order to produce diesel in liquid form.


Ash Plant


All the remaining inorganics coming in our feedstock come to this unit where the remaining hydrocarbons are removed and the rest remains in the form of ashes.


Genset Unit


In this module there is a generator set (genset) that produces the energy needed to drive the process. There are also heat exchangers that take advantage of the heat in the exhaust gases and the resulting heat is used to heat up the thermal oil circuits.


Desulphurization Module


This is an optional module. Depending on the feedstock, the resulting diesel can have a high sulphur content. The desulphurization module is then used to remove the sulphur from the diesel. Some countries have very tough sulphur limit regulations for all fuel for transportation purposes, so this unit reduces the sulphur to the acceptable level.




Safety



Safety

The plant is self-supporting in terms of fuel and completely standalone in all process-relevant parameters. Due to the closed-loop design of the plant, gaseous emissions are controlled.


The only emissions of the plant are the exhaust gases of the block heat and power plant (BHKW), including the diesel engine which produces hot water and heat for the system, as well as the waste heat used in running in the plant.


Although the plant is designed for safety, certain additional safety requirements are required. The requirement for the sealing of the plant is ensured by a permanent marginally negative pressure connected with a safety disconnection valve.


Due to the tightness of supply and removal lines, there is only a slight chance of a disturbance. To be prepared in case of this problem occuring, catch pans are provided to make sure no materials can reach the soil.


Unlike with other procedures, there is no danger of discharge of toxic gases such as dioxins or furans. Ion exchange catalysts bind the halogens as salts below the gaseous temperature so that these materials cannot form dioxins, since they are not converted into a gaseous state. Also, prions from organic material are bound just like contained metals by the catalyst, therefore reducing the risk of pollution.


The process reaction takes place in an emulsion consisting of oil and catalyst. The condition of the liquid and the processing loop are constantly monitored so that when levels drop, or if there is an issue with the pumps or turbines, the plant can be immediately shut down as a precaution.


The cut off process and associated cooling take place very quickly, with the energy supply switched off for rapid cooling.


When the block heat and power plant (BHKW) is shut down, the plant is automatically rinsed with oil, preventing blockage which could occur if plastic was to cool within the processing loop. In addition, any emergency shutdown initiates an alarm in the central service center and computer log files are simultaneously generated.


Once the problem is resolved, the plant can be restarted. Control errors and disturbances that might occur due to inappropriate repair procedures are minimized, protecting the valuable components of the plant.


The restart of the plant takes approximately 45 minutes and is executed in accordance with pre-determined procedures so that further sequence errors are minimized.


The monitoring sensors are arranged in a redundant configuration. At least two measured values must correlate at all times; otherwise an emergency is automatically initiated.




Plant Diagram

KDV 500 Diagram



This is the diagram for all the medium and large KDV systems.


The KDV system is made up of four basic modules:


1 - Sludge plant for the feedstock preparation


2 - KDV main core for the sludge conversion


3 - Ash plant for the inorganics extraction


4 - Genset module (Generators and heat exchangers)


and a fifth optional module:


5 - The desulphurization module for sulphur extraction